the collected answer in the summary is garbage.
i doubt programers with a CS degree understand half of those in the list.
And i doubt there are programers who really understand all of it, in particular: implementing language, compiler, machine learning, finite state machines, lambda calculus, category theory... the answer is totally garbage. Some of the items, such as machine learning, lambda calculus, category theory, really is something phd might understand, and most just barely. (they “understand” it as in “i've read a book”, “i've taken a class”.)
further, self-taught in programing is probably not much different than auto-didact in other fields, with respect to this question. What one may lack really depends on interest. Possibly, perhaps there might be something that all self-taught programers collectively lack statistically speaking, but this list is just garbage.
the alternative phrasing “Or, to put it another way: What should a self-taught programmer study to get up to speed with his/her formally-educated peers?” makes more sense. Here, i'd say typically it's more computer science subjects. I presume most self-taught programers here refers to those picked up programing and are making a living coding.
i'm self-taught. I'm trying now to make some constructive answer based on the list, but the list is so bad it's hard. For example, if you don't understand data structures, can you even code?? Compiler i might say is something self-taught ones normally wouldn't understand, because most programer don't need to know it to make a living coding. But there are hobbyist who study compilers as a subject of interest. Similar can be said of other items. For example, even though i'm self-taught, but my main interest in math, and my first lang is Mathematica, so i'm well familiar with functional programing and math related CS subjects (such as recursion, machine learning) before i even understood the concept of OOP. Another example, the last item says “Common vocabulary, jargon, and conventions”. If you work in the industry as a coder, that's really the first thing you learn, so i can't possible see why that item is on the list...